Greece and Rome

Term Definition
Minoans Earliest Greek civilization that had developed on the island of crete
Mycenaeans A group of people who settled on the Greek mainland
Homer A Greek poet, author of the lliod and the odyssey
city state Small independent communities made up of ancient Greece
Democracy A form of government in which citizens govern themeselves
sparta Powerful Greek city state located on the peloponnesus peninsula
Athens A Greek city state and the birthplace of democracy.
Acropolis A fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city
Trojan War A 10 year war fought between the Mycenaeans Greek and the city of Troy.
Aristocracy Group of the most wealthy and privileged.
Phalanx Formation of soldiers carrying shields close together for defense; any very close group of people
Pericles A leader who developed Athens' culture. Democracy and power during its Golden Age
Persian War A series of wars between the Greeks and Persians in which the Greeks were usually victorious
Peloponnesian War A war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered in Sparta
Socrates Greek philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong
Plato Student of Socrates, wrote the Republic about the perfectly governed society
Aristotle Greek philosopher who taught Alexander the Great. Started a famous school. Studied with Plato
Alexander The Great Together with his father defeated and united the weakened Greek city-states
Hellenistic Greek culture which blended Persian, Egyptian and Indian traditions
Republic a form of government with elected leaders
Patrican In ancient Rome, a member of the priveleged upper class
Plebeian One of the common people
Twelve Tables Rome's first code of laws
Civil Law A legal system based on a written code of laws
Punic Wars A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage
Julius Caesar Roman General who ended Roman Republic
Augustus First Emperor of the Roman Empire
Pax Romana A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting about 200 years
Bread & Circuses Something offered so as to pacify discontent or divert attention from a grievance
Aqueduct A structure that carries water over long distance
Greco-Roman The cultural mixing of both ancient Greek and Roman traditions
Diocletian Roman emperor who divided the empire into a west and an east section

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