Micro Test 3 SG Dr. Bates study guide for Test 3

Question Answer
Taxa shows the degree of similiarites among oranisms
Taxonomy 1)the science of classifying organisms2)provides universal names for organisms3)provides a reference for Identifying organisms
Phylegeny the evolutionary history of a group of organisms (how related everything is)
Homology likenesses between animals: similar characteristics in two animals that are a product of descent from a common ancestor rather than a product of a similar environment
/Characteristics of three domains Bacteria-peptidoglycan cell walls; Archaea-does not have peptidoglycan in cell walls;Eukarya-a group of closely related organisms that breed among themselves
What are the major taxa? Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
What differentiates the Eukaryota? split out based on cell wall;
Classification vs Identification Classification-relatedness (biological/what's something related to?)Identification-what is it?
What are the three steps of identification? morphology, staining, biochemical tests
What source of naming prokaryotes is used in the US? Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology
Be able to draw a dicotymous key to separate the prokaryotes Yes/No questions lead you to the answer
What are the groups of fungi? 1)Zygospore2)Ascospore3)Basidospore4)Deutromycetes
Types of lichen 1)Fruticose (fruit)2)Folios (Leaf)3)Crustose (crust)
Role of lichen, role of fungi and algae in lichen Lichen-used in litmus paper, dies, artic ecosystem;Fungi-holds fast,gathers nutrients;Algae-photosynthesis
What are the groups of algae (5)? Phaeophyta is brown deep water (kelp);Rhodophyta is red used in agar material;Cholophyta is green used in chorophyll;Diatoms-used for commercial products, such as toothpaste, pool chemicals, and a natural insecticide;Dinoflagellates-neurotoxins
Effects of algae "lungs of planet" in toothpaste, filters, food sourceplant pathogen that causes epidemics
What are the 6 groups of potists? Are Mary And Amy Coming East?ArchaezoaMicrosporaAmoebozoaApicomplexaCiliophoraEuglenozoa
?What are the two main life stages of protozoans? cystistrophcyties
What are the two types of slime molds? Cellular & Plasmodial
What are the two main groups of helminthes? Platyhelminthes (flatworms)Nematoda (round worms)
What are the two groups of platyhelminths? Trematodes (flukes)Cestodes (tapeworms)
?Compare/contrast platyhelminths versus nematodes Platyhelminths-hermaphroditic (male and female in one animal);Nematoes-dimorphic's can go through "parthenogenus" (virgin birth)
What is a vector? human louse, rat fea, deer fly, kissing bug, ticktakes parasite to new hose.—–>
What is the difference in an insect versus an arachnid? insect has 6 legs (mosquitoes,fly); arachnid has 8 legs (spiders, ticks, mice)
What are the parts of a virus? protein and nucleic acid
*What is the difference in a virus versus a bacteria? virus needs host,not alive;has either DNA or RNA; can transfer viral nucleic acid to other cells, includes nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat;bacteria-has peptidoglycan cell walls, are a large domain of single-celled, prokaryote microorganisms
How are bacteriophages cultured? host is bacteria, grow in bacteria
How are animal viruses cultured? through eggs (plate)
Techniques to identify viruses 1)cytopathic effects2)serological tests3)molecular
Lytic cycle Attachment-phage attaches;Penetration-sheath contracts forcing tail into cell;Biosynthesis-production of phage DNA and proteins;Maturation-assembly of phage particles;Release-phase lys out and death of host cell.
Lysogenic cycle virus waiting to release until gets "go" messageDNA incorporated in host DNAPhage conversion Specialized transduction
How do viruses multiply? Same steps as virus only add uncoating.Attachment, Pentration, Uncoating, Biosynthesis, Matruation, Release.
?What is an oncogene and a transformed cell? oncogene is cancer causing gene; transformed cells gain genes, T antigens.
?How is viruses and cancer related? virus goes into Host DNA and can turn into cancer"HPB"
Persistent versus latent viral infections persistent-constant decline until finally kills; Latent-wait then flare up (cold sore);Acute is quick and over with
Compare and contrast virus, viroid, and prion Virus-have protein and genetic Viroid-geneticPrion-protein
How are fungi differentiated? sex spores
List of bacteria mitochondria, cynobacteria, chloroplasts, grapm negative, gram postiive, themotoga
List Archaea hyperthermophiles, methogens, extereme halophiles
List Eukarya fungi, animals, slime molds, oomycotes, amoebas, chromista, plants, ciliates, euglenozoa, microspora, archaezoa
Classification of Eukaryotes Animalia-no cell wall;Plante-cellulose cell walls;Fungi-unicellular or multi-cellular;Protista-catch all
Morphological characteristics Micro-coccus, bacillus, staphylococcus;Macro-irregular, regular, circular, puniform, spindle
What are zygomycetes? rots food; zygo spores, warm moist environment;aquatic mobile sporessexual & asexual reproduction
What are Ascomycetes? largest group; aspergillussexual & asexual reproduction
What are Basidomycetes? mushrooms, smut, rust; sexual and asexual reproduction
What are Deutromycetes? anamorphs, asexual only.asco or basidio; pennicillin
?Virus strands + sense strand does not have to run through nucleus; Retro virus goes fast because they use reverse transcriptase

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