Soil Froms section 7.3 – Earth Science

Question Answer
What are the names of the soil horizons? O, A, B, and C
What does the breakdown of dead organisms provide to soil? Nutrients
Red soil gets its color from ____________? oxidized iron
Residual soil has the _________ chemical composition as the local bedrock. Same
Transported soil has a _________ chemical composition as the local bedrock. Different
Fertilizer provides these nutrients to plants. Potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen
Dark soils are rich in ______________ Organic matter
Decaying organic matter is called _______________. Humus
How much organic matter is in the C – horizon? Little to none
Soil development begins with _____________________ weathering rock
Which soil horizon sometimes has a clay-based hardpan layer? B-horizon
What is the term for decaying organic matter? humus
What five factors influence soil formation? climate, topography, parent material, biological activity, and time
How many soil orders are there? 12
What are soil orders? different types of soil
This kind of soil has the same chemical make up as the local bedrock. residual
This kind of rock has a different chemical make up than the local bedrock. transported
This is a measure of how well soil can support plant life soil fertility
How does topography influence soil formation? there is more vegetation on slopes facing the sun
What kinds of living organisms affects soil formation? fungi, bacteria, plants, and animals
What are the three sizes of particles formed by weathering of bedrock (that make up a soil's texture)? sand, silt, and clay
What determines the color of a soil? The minerals, organic matter, and moisture
What substance lubricates soil and makes it more likely to move in mass amounts? Water

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