Weathering & Erosion

Question Answer
Form when limestone is dissolved by acidic waters caves and sinkholes
Examples of soft rocks that are affected by acidic waters: marble and limestone
rapid movement of a large amount of rock and soil landslide
What is erosion? movement of fragments of rock and soil
What are four forces of erosion? water, wind, ice, and gravity
What factors speed up chemical weathering? warm temperatures, abundant rainfall, and thick vegetation
What is the other name for mechanical weathering? physical weathering
There are two types of weathering, what are they? chemical and mechanical
What factors speed up physical weathering? cool climates
What is frost wedging? Repeated freezing and thawing of water in cracks that physically breaks apart rock.
What is weathering? breaking down or changing materials
Why does an object with a larger surface area break down faster? A larger area is exposed to weathering forces.
Name the three different kinds of rock. metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary
How does igneous rock form? cooling and crystallization of magma
How does sedimentary rock form? compacting and cementing of sediments
How does metamorphic rock form? heat and pressure deep in the earth
How does magma form? melting of solid rock
How does sediment form? weathering of rock
What is transpiration? Water evaporating from plants
What is infiltration? Water soaking into the soil.
What types of water movement are due to gravity? assimilation, runoff, infiltration, precipitation
How does the rate of precipitation affect infiltration? If rain falls too fast then the soil becomes saturated and water ca no longer infiltrate it, then it becomes runoff.
Does water use energy or release energy to go from solid to liquid to gas? use
Does water become more or less mobile going from solid, to liquid, to gas? More
Why does it require more energy to change water from solid, to liquid, to gas? because the water molecules are becoming more mobile.
What slows runoff and increases infiltration? vegetation

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